Scotland
Coronavirus Tracker

Scotland Coronavirus Tracker

Last Updated: 24th November

Page updated by 6pm each Thursday. Follow me on Twitter for any updates!

Page updated by 6pm each Thursday.

Follow me on Twitter for any updates!

Cases

2,127,767

+1,913 this week

Deaths

16,092

+40 this week

In Hospital

573

-63 this week

In ICU

3

-1 this week

These charts show the number of new cases and deaths in Scotland each week.

 

The case figures are based on the specimen date (the week the test was actually conducted, rather than just the week the result was reported), but the death figures are based on the registration date (the week the death was registered, and not when it actually occurred). There is typically a three-day gap between a death occurring and it being registered, however, this gap can be larger over bank holidays and especially over the Christmas/New years period (resulting in delayed reporting).

 

Up until the 5th of January 2022, a case was just someone who tested positive for the virus on a PCR test. From the 6th of January onwards, people who tested positive on lateral flow tests (LFDs) also started to be included. And from the 1st of March 2022, reinfections are also counted (anyone who tests positive more than 90 days after their last positive test).

 

A Covid-19 death here is someone who has died with Covid-19 being specifically mentioned on their death certificate as an underlying or contributory cause of death. This differs from death counts seen elsewhere, which class a Covid-19 death as anyone who has died from any cause within 28 days of testing positive for the virus.

Cases
Deaths

Weekly Increase by Council Area

New Cases
New Deaths

This Week at a Glance

In the past week, 139,629 new vaccinations have been reported, which is a decrease from the previous weeks figure of 149,751. This was made up of 513 first doses, 1,254 second doses, and 137,862 winter 2022 booster doses.

In total, 83.3% of the entire Scottish population have had their first dose, 78.7% have a second dose, and 30.3% have now had a winter 2022 booster dose.

In the past week, 18,733 new tests were conducted, which is a decrease from the previous weeks figure of 19,808. From these, roughly 38% were from PCR tests, and 62% were from LFD tests.

Since the beginning of the pandemic, 17,527,771 PCR tests have been conducted in Scotland. The total number of LFD tests conducted is not available, as these were not recorded in the figures throughout 2020/2021. But since the beginning of 2022, we have conducted 11,261,774.

In the past week, 1,913 new cases were identified, which is a decrease from the previous weeks figure of 2,349. From these, 1,212 (63%) were first infections, and 701 (37%) were reinfections.

The total number of confirmed cases in Scotland is now at 2,127,767. This figure is made up of 1,978,742 first infections, and 149,025 reinfections. However, as not everyone who catches the virus is tested for it, this is likely to be a fairly significant undercount.

There are currently 573 people in hospital throughout Scotland who have recently tested positive for the virus, which is 63 fewer than this time last week.

From that 573 number, 3 are currently in ICU (with a stay of under 28 days), which is 1 fewer than than this time last week. There are a further 1 people in ICU with a stay of more than 28 days.

In the past week, 40 new deaths from Covid-19 were reported, which is a decrease from the previous weeks figure of 47. From all causes, Scotland had 1,271 new deaths last week, which was 97 higher than normal for this time of the year.

There have now been 16,092 deaths since the beginning of the pandemic in Scotland where Covid-19 was specifically mentioned as a cause of death. From all causes, we have had 16,071 more deaths than expected since the pandemic began (our excess deaths).

Percentage in Scotland who…

are currently infected with Covid-19

1.59%

roughly every 1 in 65 people

have ever tested positive for Covid-19

36.2%

roughly every 1 in 3 people

have lost their lives to Covid-19

0.29%

roughly every 1 in 340 people

First Doses Administered

4,554,691

+513 this week

That is 83.3% of Scotland!

Second Doses Administered

4,300,694

+1,254 this week

That is 78.7% of Scotland!

Third-Fifth Doses Administered

4,180,569

Winter 2022 Boosters Administered

1,658,157

+137,862 this week

That is 30.3% of Scotland!

Weekly Increases

This chart shows the number of new vaccinations administered each week, split by first, second, third, and Winter 2022 Booster dose. These figures are based on reported date.

 

No data for fourth/fifth doses is available, and the figures for third doses stopped being released in mid-September 2022.

 

If you would like to see how this chart looked when it was based on administered date (rather than reported date), went back to the very start of the vaccination rollout, and included fourth doses, please visit the old vaccination page here.

 

 

Total Coverage by Day

This chart shows the running total number of first, second, third, and Winter 2022 Booster doses which had been administered on each day of the pandemic (based on reported date), and what percentage of the total population this covered.

 

You can hover over a specific day to see the figures for it in a popup!

 

No data for fourth/fifth doses is available, and the figures for third doses stopped being released in mid-September 2022. The chart gives daily updates up until mid-September 2022, but after that switches to weekly updates.

 

If you would like to see how this chart looked when it was based on administered date (rather than reported date), went back to the very start of the vaccination rollout, and included fourth doses, please visit the old vaccination page here.

Weekly Increases
Total Coverage by Day

This chart shows the total number of people in each age group who have had their first, second, and third dose of the vaccine. You can select an age group to see more specific figures for it. 

 

The coverage figures are calculated using the NRS mid-2020 population estimates. As these estimates aren't completely accurate, and vaccine uptake has been so high, it has resulted in the coverage figures for some age groups going beyond 100%. The true figure for these age groups is likely somewhere in the high 90s. 

 

This chart was last updated in mid-September 2022. It will no longer be updated, as the data is no longer being released.

This chart shows the number of vaccinations administered by type. In Scotland, we are currently administering Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Moderna vaccines.

 

You can also use drop-down menu to switch between total combined doses, first doses, second doses, third doses, and fourth doses. 

 

This chart was last updated in mid-September 2022. It will no longer be updated, as the data is no longer being released.

This chart shows the number of covid hospital admissions in each age group. You can use the drop-down menu to view the number of new admissions this week, last week, and in total since the beginning of the pandemic. You can also switch between the actual figures, and the per 100k population figures.

 

A covid hospital admission is someone who has been admitted to hospital after having a positive PCR test in the community, and was admitted as an emergency to medical specialities. This definition tries to only count those who were admitted to hospital 'because' of covid, and not include those where were admitted to hospital 'with' covid.

In Hospital by Day

This chart shows the total number of people who are in hospital each day (inpatients) with covid, and also how many of these patients are in ICU. Someone is counted as a covid patient if they tested positive in the 14 days prior to their admission, or if they test positive during their stay in hospital. Patients stop being counted once they are discharged, or if they have been in hospital for longer than 28 days.

 

The decrease seen in September 2020 was because of a change in methodology.

 

 

New Admissions by Week

This chart shows the number of people who are admitted to hospital (and ICU specifically) each week with covid. The figures here are based on the date of admission, and not just the reported date.

 

Please note that this methodology was changed in September 2022 (with the figures for the new methodology being backdated to the start of the pandemic). The new methodology includes those admitted to hospital after having a positive PCR test in the community, and admitted as an emergency to medical specialities. This definition tries to only count those who were admitted to hospital 'because' of covid, and not include those where were admitted to hospital 'with' covid.

 

The figures for the most recent week may be incomplete due to missing data / reporting delays, and will increase in future updates.

In Hospital by Day
New Admissions by Week

This chart is based on specimen date, and shows the number of new cases identified over the past 7 days in each age group, per 100k population.

 

You can use the buttons to switch between a view of the past 30 days or 90 days. Also, the figures are just released in these awkward age ranges, so unfortunately I can't change them to more even ranges!

This chart shows the number of cases reported in each age group this week, and in total. You can use the drop-down menu to switch between these, and also to switch between the actual and per 100k population figures.

 

The 'New This Week' figure is based on specimen date, and shows the number of new cases identified in the week up to the most recent Friday.

 

The figures here might not match the national totals due to missing age data. Also, the figures are just released in these awkward age ranges, so unfortunately I can't change them to more even ranges!

This chart shows the number of new tests conducted each week. The data is based on specimen date (the week the test was conducted, rather than just the week the result was reported). 

 

The figures are split by test type, and you can deselect either by selecting it on the legend. Up until the 5th of January 2022, the chart is just showing PCR tests. But after this date, Lateral Flow Tests (LFDs) begin to be included in the figures, which explains the sudden increase around this time. Later in 2022 testing became more restricted, as most people became ineligible to receive free tests from the government. 

 

Cases

This chart shows the number of new cases identified each day by specimen date (the day the test was conducted, rather than just the day it was reported).

 

Up until the 5th of January 2022, a case was someone who tested positive for the virus on a PCR test. From the 6th of January onwards, someone who tests positive on a lateral flow test (LFD) is also counted as a new case. From the 1st of March 2022, reinfections are also counted (anyone who tests positive more than 90 days after their last positive test).

 

 

Deaths

This chart shows the number of new deaths occurring each day by the date of death (the day the death occurred, rather than just the day it was reported or registered).

Cases
Deaths

These charts show the total number of covid deaths since the beginning of the pandemic by age group and sex. You can use the toggle button to view the deaths in the latest week only, and you can also use the buttons to switch between the total and per 100k population figures. When looking at the charts, you can deselect one of the sexes on the legend to view the figures for just Males or Females (or to view the combined figure).

 

It is worth noting that in the older age groups, there are more Females than Males. Females make up: 50% of the under 50 population, 52% of the 50-69 population, 53% of the 70-79 population, 59% of the 80-89 population, and 69% of the 90+ population. You can view a breakdown of Scotlands population by age and sex here.

Cumulative Total
This Week

This chart gives an insight into the number of excess deaths caused by Covid-19 since the beginning of the pandemic, and in each individual year.

 

The 'all causes' column shows the total number of deaths each year from all causes. The 'expected' column shows the total number of expected deaths during that same timeframe, based on the average number of deaths over the past five years.

 

The 'excess' death figure shows the difference between the 'all causes' and 'expected' figures.. e.g, how many more deaths did we have than expected? And then the 'Covid-19' figure shows how many covid deaths were recorded during those years too.

 

The figures for 2020 only includes the start of the pandemic onwards, and the figures for 2022 only include the figures up to the current week.

This chart shows the number of excess deaths in Scotland each week since the start of 2020. This basically means how many more (or less) deaths have we seen each week, from all causes, than the average number of deaths we saw during the same week between 2015 and 2019 (for 2020/2021) or 2016-2021 excluding 2020 (for 2022). 

 

The figures are based on the date of the registration of the death, and as many registration offices are closed during bank holidays and public holidays, the figures around these weeks may appear off. This is most noticeable in the Christmas/New Year period. 

This chart shows the total number of deaths we've seen in Scotland during each week of 2020, 2021, and 2022, from all causes, and compares these with the average number of deaths we saw during the same weeks between 2015 and 2019. The grey line shows the average number of weekly deaths between 2015 and 2019, and the grey shaded area shows the range where each of the deaths for those weeks fell into. I.e., the normal range.

 

The idea with this chart is that we can see if there has been any noticeable increase in deaths throughout the pandemic, compared to what we would have expected to see during the same timeframe in a normal year. While this is not the most accurate count of Covid deaths, looking at excess deaths can help visualise just how much of an impact the virus had, particularly during the first wave. 

 

The figures are based on the date of the registration of the death, and as many registration offices are closed during bank holidays and public holidays, the figures around these weeks may appear off. This is most noticeable in the Christmas/New Year period. 

This chart shows the total number of deaths we've seen in Scotland during each week of 2020, 2021, and 2022, from all causes, and compares these with the average number of deaths we saw during the same weeks between 2015 and 2019. The grey line shows the average number of weekly deaths between 2015 and 2019, and the grey shaded area shows the range where each of the deaths for those weeks fell into. I.e., the normal range.

 

The idea with this chart is that we can see if there has been any noticeable increase in deaths throughout the pandemic, compared to what we would have expected to see during the same timeframe in a normal year. While this is not the most accurate count of Covid deaths, looking at excess deaths can help visualise just how much of an impact the virus had, particularly during the first wave. 

 

The figures are based on the date of the registration of the death, and as many registration offices are closed during bank holidays and public holidays, the figures around these weeks may appear off. This is most noticeable in the Christmas/New Year period. 

This chart shows the trend of cases, deaths, hospital/ICU admissions, tests, and the percentage of the population estimated to currently have Covid-19 throughout the course of the entire pandemic. The data is based on specimen date, date of death, and date of admission, so the figures here accurately reflect what was going on at each point of the pandemic.

 

Each metric is shown on its own scale, so they are not directly comparable to each other in that sense, however, they can be compared to each other to see how the relationship between each metric changed over the course of the pandemic. For each metric the '100%' mark is set at the peak in January 2021. For example, if we were having 50 deaths a day at the peak in January 2021, this would be the 100% level.. then if we started to have 200 deaths a day later in the pandemic, this would be shown at the 400% level, and if we started to have 25 deaths a day, this would be shown at the 50% level. 

 

This should let us see how things changed after that January 2021 as a result of the vaccine rollout. For example, at the peak of the second wave in January 2021, we were averaging around 2,300 new cases and 60 new deaths a day. In August 2021 another wave hit, and we peaked at around 6500 cases a day (almost triple (300%) of the January 2021 peak). If nothing changed, then during that wave we would also have expected to see almost triple the deaths we saw in January 2021, which would be around 180 deaths a day. Thankfully the successful rollout of the vaccine meant that this was not the case, and the relationship between cases and deaths/hospitalisations was much weaker! At the peak of the August 2021 wave, we were seeing around 23 deaths a day.

 

You can add/remove metrics by selecting them on the legend. Also, you can hover over a specific day on the chart to see more detailed figures for each metric that day.

This chart shows the trend of cases, deaths, hospital/ICU admissions, tests, and the percentage of the population estimated to currently have Covid-19 throughout the course of the entire pandemic. The data is based on specimen date, date of death, and date of admission, so the figures here accurately reflect what was going on at each point of the pandemic.

 

Each metric is shown on its own scale, so they are not directly comparable to each other in that sense, however, they can be compared to each other to see how the relationship between each metric changed over the course of the pandemic. For each metric the '100%' mark is set at the peak in January 2021. For example, if we were having 50 deaths a day at the peak in January 2021, this would be the 100% level.. then if we started to have 200 deaths a day later in the pandemic, this would be shown at the 400% level, and if we started to have 25 deaths a day, this would be shown at the 50% level. 

 

This should let us see how things changed after that January 2021 as a result of the vaccine rollout. For example, at the peak of the second wave in January 2021, we were averaging around 2,300 new cases and 60 new deaths a day. In August 2021 another wave hit, and we peaked at around 6500 cases a day (almost triple (300%) of the January 2021 peak). If nothing changed, then during that wave we would also have expected to see almost triple the deaths we saw in January 2021, which would be around 180 deaths a day. Thankfully the successful rollout of the vaccine meant that this was not the case, and the relationship between cases and deaths/hospitalisations was much weaker! At the peak of the August 2021 wave, we were seeing around 23 deaths a day.

 

You can add/remove metrics by selecting them on the legend. Also, you can hover over a specific day on the chart to see more detailed figures for each metric that day.

Support the Page!

If you are finding this page useful and want to help support it, maybe consider giving a donation below. 

Any help is really appreciated!! 🙂

Let me know if you spot an error / Have a suggestion!

About Coronavirus (COVID-19)

NHS Scotland has some great information here about the virus, and how you can look after your own physical and mental health during these difficult times.

Share this Page

Facebook
Twitter
WhatsApp
Reddit
LinkedIn
Email

F.A.Q

Me! I’m John, a 27-year-old Cat lover and former student at the University of the Highlands and Islands (Argyll College). I started tracking the Scottish Coronavirus (Covid-19) data in a spreadsheet out of interest, which eventually led to me making this page. 

Rather than buying a new domain to host it, I just added it to my ‘Travelling Tabby’ website. This is a travel blog, and has absolutely nothing to do with the Coronavirus. But still, feel free to look around if you want! (although there isn’t much on the blog, as most of my free time since the start of 2020 has been spent on this page)

If you need to contact me, you can use the contact form on this page, or email me at [email protected]

Loads! Here are some of them:

UK Coronavirus Tracker – Another page by me, keeping track of all the UK  and worldwide data (with lots of national/regional comparisons included)

Argyll Coronavirus Tracker – Yet another page by me, keeping track of all the case data in the intermediate zones of Argyll & Bute / Arran

Worldometers – Worldwide Data in an easy table format

WHO – Worldwide Data with an attractive design

Our World in Data – A large website with heaps of data on the pandemic across the world

NYT – Great for USA Data

Public Health Scotland – The official Scottish dashboard, with some additional figures on there 

The Courier – Another page keeping track of all the Scottish data, with some additional visualizations included (and their separate vaccination page here is especially nice!)

UK Government – The official UK dashboard, with some additional figures on there (their interactive map here is especially nice)

Covid-19 Risk – A neat website that lets you calculate the level of risk involved in attending an event in your area, based on recent case rates

ZOE – An app that allows users to report Covid-19 symptoms, and from that, estimates the current prevalence of the virus across the UK (works best when viewing on their app)

Yeah! I occasionally post different types of charts and comparisons on Twitter!

Also, here is a link to the spreadsheet I useFeel free to download a copy. It is a bit of a mess, but it could be useful if you were looking for some raw data. 

Here is a list of all the official pages involving Coronavirus figures for Scotland (that I know of). Please be aware that as we move closer to the end of the pandemic, many of these sources have stopped releasing data:

PHS Dashboard – The main source of weekly Scottish covid data. Includes figures on cases, tests, hospitalisations, and vaccinations. 

NRS Weekly Report – A weekly report looking at deaths. It also includes extra information, like excess deaths, location of death, and age of death. Once a month a very detailed report comes out, looking at factors such as deprivation, pre-existing conditions, intermediate zones, and so forth.

PHS Weekly Report – A weekly report giving a good overview of the current Covid-19 situation in Scotland, taking multiple sources into account and providing additional information.

PHS Weekly Dashboard – A dashboard that is updated once a week, consisting of data included in the PHS weekly report above. 

PHS Wider Impacts Dashboard – A dashboard looking at a range of general health factors and how the pandemic has impacted them (primarily through comparisons to previous years). Such as total hospital appointments, A&E attendances, cancer diagnoses, and much more.

PHS Education Dashboard – A weekly dashboard looking at cases, testing, and hospital admissions in children and those working in the education sector. 

ScotGov Impact Dashboard – A weekly dashboard looking at covids impact throughout society. Includes stuff like public opinion polls, school attendance, crime rates, unemployment rate, and more. 

ScotGov Modelling the Pandemic – A weekly report which provides an update of the current R number, and covers other areas relating to the current prevalence of the virus in Scotland. 

UK Gov – A page looking at the UK covid wide data, but a lot of it shows each nation separately. 

ONS Weekly Infection Survey – A weekly report that looks at covid rates throughout the UK (which includes a section Scotland specifically), and estimates the total number of people who currently have the virus. 

ONS Monthly Long Covid Study – A monthly report that looks at the prevalence of Long Covid throughout the UK. 

ONS Additional Insights – A weekly dashboard that keeps track of various metrics across the UK, such as cases, hospitalizations, vaccinations, antibodies, well-being, lifestyle, work, and more.

COG-UK – A neat website that keeps track of which variants of the virus which are currently active throughout the UK.

SEPA Wastewater Dashboard – A dashboard that analyses wastewater samples across Scotland and tracks how many traces of Covid-19 are being found in them.

Sorry!

One issue might be that you’re using Firefox. This browser seems to break the page for a lot of people, and I have no idea what is causing it. My only suggestion would be to try viewing the page on another browser, as it just seems to be Firefox which has issues, on a range of devices.

If things in general aren’t up to date, then it might just be that the page your browser is showing you hasn’t updated to show the most recent version. This seems to be an issue for only some people, for whatever reason. But if you view the page in private/incognito mode, then the issue should go away. 

It’s a WordPress site, built with Elementor. That covers most of the page, but all the graphs/charts/tables are embedded from a range of different places! 

These are Datawrapper, Flourish, and Everviz. The Datawrapper and Flourish charts will mention their name in the footer, and if there’s no mention, it is an Everviz chart. Oh, and the non Datawrapper maps are made with MapSVG!

I’d be happy to answer any other questions about it, but it is quite simple. I’m not really any good at programming/automation, and I’m new to all of this, so it is mostly just a lot of copying/pasting to get the website updated.  

Additional Information / Clarifications

In September 2022, Public Health Scotland stopped releasing the Covid-19 vaccine data for Scotland in its normal form. From that point onwards, the vaccination data released would primarily focus on the rollout of the winter 2022 booster. Figures showing the total number of first, second, and third-fifth doses administered were still being released, but in a different format from how they were previously being released.

Previously, the figures were daily, were based on the date the vaccination was administered, and removed individuals who had passed away or moved out of Scotland. But the new figures from September 2022 onwards are weekly, just based on the date the vaccine was reported, and do not remove individuals who had passed away or moved out of Scotland.

I had to switch to using the new figures on the main ‘Scotland Coronavirus Tracker’ page, otherwise the vaccination figures would never be updated again. But I did keep the charts showing the vaccination data in its old format. You can view them here.

While those figures are no longer being updated, they are the most accurate figures for looking at the first, second, third, and fourth dose rollout in Scotland (from December 2020 up to September 2022).

Most of the charts on this page will have their source linked directly underneath them. But still, here is a list of all the main sources used on this page: 

PHS Open Data – The data files here are where I get the bulk of the data on this page from. That includes all of the cases and hospital figures.

PHS Vaccination Data – The data files here are where I get all of the vaccination data from. Including figures by age group, council area, and vaccine type. 

PHS Weekly Report – This is where I get the data on hospital admissions by age group. 

NRS Weekly Report – This is where I get the death data, and also the excess death figures. The deaths by age group figures are included in the ‘related statistics’ page, and I personally get them from the “Weekly deaths by sex and age group in NHS health boards, 2020 and 2021” sheet. The deaths by intermediate zone data are also released here, but only once a month. Go to the archive page to see the previous releases of the monthly report on it.

ONS Infection Survey – The data here is used for the ‘Percentage of Scotland who… are currently infected with Covid-19’ figure near the top of the page, and also in the comparison trends chart.

NRS Population Estimate – This has the population figures for Scotland, including age groups and council areas. 

I think that covers all of it! A lot of the figures on the page aren’t included in these sources, as I just work it out myself (stuff like the percentage change from last week). But if you need help finding anything else, just send me a message I’d be happy to help! 

Below are some of the frequently requested additions for the page, with an explanation as to why they are not currently available: 

R Number
The R number was on this page before, however, it was removed at the start of 2022. The reason for this is that the ‘latest’ R number released lags behind 2-3 weeks. So we could have been in a situation where cases were rising rapidly, yet the R number was still sitting at 0.8 – 0.9, reflecting the situation a few weeks before.

It wasn’t very useful in that regard, and was actually quite misleading too. The R number is still released once a week though, and the best place to view the time series of it is on the UK Gov Dashboard here.

Cases / Hospital Admissions / Deaths by Vaccination Status
This data used to be available, but it is no longer released by PHS. Although, the UKHSA does release some data for England each week, which you can view in their reports here.

Deaths by Pre Existing Condition
There isn’t too much data released about this, so I can’t really add anything to the page for it. The best available would be in the monthly NRS death reports here.

The reports there are released once a week, but then once a month (normally around the mid point of the month), the weekly report will contain a lot of additional data in it, including some figures on deaths by pre-existing condition, occupation, and lots more. Try viewing the ‘archive’ link on the page and you’ll see the larger reports occurring once a month. 

If you are looking for additional death figures, they will probably be in there.

As just about all of the data on this page comes from PHS, I would recommend looking at the notes section on their dashboard here to see exactly what is included in each metric. For deaths, the NRS have a great methodology document available here. And for the ONS Infection Survey figures, you can see the data definitions in one of their reports here.

Additionally, on most charts you can click the header, and a drop down will appear that gives some more specific information about what it shows.

I aim to update this page every Thursday for 6pm. Although unfortunately, this isn’t always possible due to data not being released on time, or something else in my life taking priority.

But it is updated by 6pm or shortly after most of the time! If a delay or more than 10-15 minutes is expected, I will put out a tweet to let people know.

On public holidays, the amount of data being released can vary, so the page will only be partially updated, or potentially not updated at all. I’ll include a header banner on this page to let people know when/if that is occurring.

Most of the data is released from PHS on Wednesday, however, I do my updates on Thursday, as that allows me to include the NRS death data at the same time. Then on Friday, I also add in the ONS Infection Survey Data.

Thank You to Argyll College UHI for Sponsoring This Page

Thank You to Argyll College UHI
for Sponsoring This Page

Disclaimer

The data on this page is obtained from official sources, and it is accurate to the best of my knowledge. However, I am only human! I sometimes make miscalculations, or typos. Don’t always take the information on this page as fact and base decisions on it. 

All the sources are listed above, as is the spreadsheet I make all my calculations in, so feel free to double-check the data and let me know if you think something isn’t correct!

This website is not associated with the Scottish government, UK government, NHS, or any other organization. It is just run by an individual who does not value his free time.